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Necrotrophic Effectors

The CCDM is a specialist centre in effector biology and is one of the few organisations in Australia studying necrotrophic effectors of crop fungal pathogens. At the CCDM we work on the model that a wheat line insensitive to all relevant necrotrophic effectors will be extremely resistant to a given disease. Nov 15, 2019 Read Time: 1 minutes


How can effectors be used in breeding programs?

Breeders can contact the CCDM for an effector sensitivity screening kit including ToxA and ToxB for yellow spot and ToxA, Tox1 and Tox3 for SNB. These effectors can be infiltrated directly onto wheat varieties. Breeders can see necrosis within a few days, and can rapidly discard sensitive varieties from the breeding program.

Benefits of using effectors

  •  A rapid assay – Once infiltrated, necrosis caused by sensitivity to effectors appears in a few days. Wheat cultivars that are insensitive to effectors possess the genetic potential to confer greater SNB and yellow spot resistance. No need to test in different locations, as the cultivar is either sensitive or insensitive to the effector.
  • Save costs – effectors are provided to breeding companies without charge. The only cost for leaf infiltrations is the labour involved, which is minimal when compared to field trials. It is possible to carry out up to 2000 infiltrations per day.
  • Save on space – leaf infiltrations can be carried out on seedlings, as young as nine days old.
  • Simplicity – infiltrations only require a needleless 1cc syringe and non-toxic marker pen. As a result, operating costs are kept to a minimum.
  • Take out the guess work – breeders will know exactly which effector is causing symptoms on the plant.

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