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Effector Sensitivity Screening Kit

The CCDM is a specialist centre in effector biology and is one of the few organisations in Australia studying necrotrophic effectors of crop fungal pathogens. Breeders can contact the CCDM cereal research team for an effector sensitivity screening kit which is useful for rapidly screening and removal of sensitive varieties from the breeding program. If this interests you, please get in touch. Jan 19, 2024 Read Time: 1 minutes


What’s included in the kit?

These kits include ToxA and ToxB for yellow spot and ToxA, Tox1, Tox3, Tox5 and Tox267 for SNB. These effectors can be infiltrated directly onto wheat varieties. Breeders can see necrosis or chlorosis within a few days, and can rapidly discard sensitive varieties from the breeding program.

Benefits of using effectors

At the CCDM we work on the model that a wheat line insensitive to all relevant necrotrophic effectors will greatly boost the plant immunity to these diseases.

  • A rapid assay – Once infiltrated, symptoms caused by sensitivity to effectors appear in a few days. This assay is a quick and simple method to screen out wheat cultivars that possess the genetic potential to confer SNB and yellow spot disease susceptibility. No need to test in different locations, as the cultivar is either sensitive or insensitive to the effector.
  • Save costs – effectors are provided to breeding companies without charge. The only cost for leaf infiltrations is the labour involved, which is minimal when compared to field trials. It is possible to carry out up to 2000 infiltrations per day.
  • Save on space – leaf infiltrations can be carried out on seedlings, as young as nine days old.
  • Simplicity – infiltrations only require a needleless 1cc syringe and non-toxic marker pen. As a result, operating costs are kept to a minimum.
  • Take out the guess work – breeders will know exactly which effector is causing symptoms on the plant.



Information on Australian wheat sensitivities to both P. tritici-repentis and P. nodorum effectors can be found here:

Wheat sensitivity ratings to necrotrophic effectors

This information was last updated in January 2024, and will be updated periodically upon the availability of new release wheat varieties.

Get in touch

For an effector sensitivity screening kit or any questions, please contact CCDM cereal disease genetics researcher Dr Pao Theen See at

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